Stoned, For All Eternity

A great deal has been written about and made a lot of in different archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors were capable of carve out, transport and erect huge multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of well, monumental dimension. The implication is that since there isn’t any doubting the existence of those buildings, our ancestors should of the truth is possessed a sophisticated know-how or had help from those who did (i.e. – ‘historic astronauts’). That runs opposite to the usual mannequin of scholarly archaeology. However the questions stay.

Maybe I’d better say what I mean by huge multi-ton stone blocks. I mean stones which are a minimum of several tons in weight, up to the most important recognized carved (but nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That’s not the document nonetheless for there’s, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I imply these are stones that are not trivial to toss round, even at the moment. And while not all major continents and nations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that nonetheless leaves a number of locations, and well known locations, that do.

How and why these megaliths were constructed is not any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, well these stone monuments have been obviously essential to them, and it is necessary to us to figure out how and why they did Stone Island Jumpers Jackets it. Utilizing large stone blocks as an alternative of wooden and even small stone blocks or bricks must have served a goal regardless of the better hardships involved. So, why did our historical ancestors need giant stones; and how did they handle them?

As to the why, presumably, for starters, should you decide to use stone, then it is important sufficient a material serving a goal(s) that necessitates lasting for all sensible purposes an ‘eternity’. In the event you construct one thing to last, at the least again then, you utilize stone, the larger the better. However for what function did the ancients want such megalithic giants?

Issues Arising: Objective

These historic societies or cultures spent an terrible lot of resources to build things that were relatively peripheral to their fundamental wants. The Easter Islanders might survive without those Moai statues; ancient Egypt would nonetheless have been a ‘superpower’ even without those pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, large statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – often called Ramesses the nice), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was only a shrine to one of many Greek deities (Athena), and related observations might be prolonged to the thousands of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments around the globe which have been mainly ceremonial in operate.

It is tough to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the basic survival wants of the native population – you need not assemble something of that magnitude just to inform you what season it’s! If it is advisable mark, say the Summer season Solstice, all you want have is a traditionally and permanently nicely marked and simply identified Point A, the place you’ll be able to observe some fixed construction like a rock on the Horizon, that’s Level B, and when the Sun arises straight over Point B, that is the longest day of the year. There isn’t any need to engage in any kind of backbreaking toil or building no matter.

If a society can afford to spend time and effort and cash on secondary tasks, say like in fashionable society numerous public artwork works in comparison with primary tasks like roads (transport), colleges (schooling) and hospitals (well being care), then it’s important to conclude that that society was properly off provided that they could divert basic sources from main projects to undertake tasks of a secondary nature. Either that, or that which looks to us as comparatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or these Easter Island statues or the Sphinx really held a primary operate incomprehensible to us however which rivalled in significance housing and insuring ample food supplies and similar things very important to their day-to-day survival.

Points Arising: Logistics

There’s additionally the logistics problem. You want a large workforce that needed to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, especially fed. There wasn’t exactly a close by supermarket the place countless supplies might be bought. Additional, whereas employed on these quarrying, transporting and building projects the staff could not be gainfully employed elsewhere to provide basics like hunting and gathering for meals or even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The workers couldn’t have been used for serving within the military, or some other useful and necessary task. All of this carving, transporting and building were not simply busy work designed to keep the rabble off the streets and out of trouble, and slave labour wasn’t normally in vogue both, contrary to many widespread Hollywood photos. After all in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, however wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Still, the logistics in caving that massive stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been huge, and the explanation(s) for doing so of vast significance to the powers-that-be.

Points Arising: Methods and Means: The How!

Although our focus and curiosity is commonly on the construction part, as in how was that completed, that’s usually just one-third of the hard yards. Take these 2.Three million blocks that make up the nice Pyramid at Giza. Section One: each block had to be carved to size. You just did not hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is hard yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Onerous yakka Section Two was transporting those carved blocks from the various quarries – some local, some not – to action metropolis, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Phase One and Two isn’t usually all that mysterious – simply bloody arduous backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the construction – Part Three.

To me the most important mystery just isn’t a lot the way you get something from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Television collection “Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires”), but how you get a massive multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to 40 or more toes to act as a lintel, like these at Stonehenge or on all those Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can always conceive of building sand or dirt ramps to haul large lintels upwards into place, therefore eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-truth, however in case you think about it, such infrastructure is a way more labour intensive and an all-spherical major undertaking in its own right. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a larger volume of material to be put into place (and of course later removed) than that of the volume of material required to construct the pyramid in query in the primary place. After all if the venture is that necessary, and if there may be simply no different way – well there’s all the time these exhausting options.

For instance for instance of simply how dangerous our knowledge of our distant historical ancestors really is, this is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his textual content “The Ancient Greek World: People and Places” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their mental powers and their remarkably skilled craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few details survive of their actual building methods, however.”

“Cranes have been nearly certainly used to help increase the masonry up to the temples during building, though no traces of such machinery have been found.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and indeed housed and fed the big, extremely expert workforce required to build them, so effectively is unknown.”

So, now let’s look at alternate options as provided in some alt-archaeological texts.

One principle generally seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these massive blocks didn’t start out as huge blocks, similar to a brick does not start out as a brick, but somewhat they had been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, however trendy petrologists’ may simply detect such. Usually the truth is the quarry from the place the stone originated could be exactly identified, although that often raises the query then of transport, for the reason that distances twixt quarry site and development site may be tons of of miles. That is an issue that applies to Stonehenge as well as some of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you really need to go far-out, star-scout, let’s attempt antigravity! Anti-gravity is just out there in one kind, dark power. Dark power is that mysterious antigravity power that’s causing the increasing Universe to carry on expanding at ever quicker and faster rates, in defiance of gravity which should slow the enlargement charge down. Alas, dark vitality, which whereas dominant over the dimensions of the whole Universe, is trivial regionally relative to Earth’s intense gravity discipline.

Alt-archaeology texts are filled with references to sound vitality that levitates (negates gravity) and thus large blocks of stone can be floated round and put into place even with just the oomph of an infant, simply by making the suitable sound at the suitable stage.. Sound of course might be focused. We all know and respect the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, properly at the very least comparatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the professional projections of the skilled human voice (or equivalent). Nonetheless, should you crunch the numbers, the vitality required to negate gravity is means outside the realm of which sound power can muster. Considering the cacophony of sounds the human race produces each day, you’d assume that all the relevant elements would come together someplace, sometime and ‘simply so’ as to provide levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the record. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles

In some constructions, it’s not just a matter of manipulating massive however irregular stone blocks but fitting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes which are instantly apparent at websites all over the world, like those from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone using solely other stone or copper tools is just not easy by any stretch of the imagination. It’s not simple; it is extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all your blocks aren’t an ordinary sq. block dimension and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say?

Pity that although the ancients left all method of photos behind of their each day lives and culture, I discover it amazing that despite all of these multi-hundreds of photographs from historic Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and many others. not one reveals an actual half-finished or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple just like the Parthenon that is beneath construction, or whatever. That’s extremely anomalous IMHO, though there are pictures of historical Egyptians transporting large stone blocks.

However, even a few of these ancient cultures were puzzled as to how their much more ancient ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions inconceivable’.

There’s something very odd when the pure descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for the way their ancestors constructed, transported and erected massive stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their final resting (really standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” crew accomplished the identical with less elegant however with pure grunt power. Walking stone statues are just a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for consolation. Truly for some purpose Easter Islanders in some unspecified time in the future downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for reasons not entirely clear aside from priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can nonetheless be seen immediately, lying in place, now long neglected.

Also in the Pacific region, Nan Modal is an ancient city of about zero.Seventy five square kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s in the present day termed Micronesia. Town is comprised of artificial islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus usually referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ nonetheless are built up of massive megalithic stone partitions up to 25 toes excessive. How so? Nicely the stones have been carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be sincere, that makes as much sense as the rest.

I noted above that allegedly sound might levitate massive stone blocks. That idea or statement is present in each South America and ancient Egypt – huge stones are somehow lifted and transported by sound. I still think that is highly suspect and I feel scientists would need an precise modern-day demonstration. I do know I would.

Tentative Conclusions

As I noted above, it isn’t the caving or the transport that is the real challenge, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s a real problem, fairly the issue is lifting massive stones straight up that I especially puzzle over.

The puzzlement relates to our own use of stones in constructing projects. We might I assume, if we wanted to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we don’t. Your house, if it accommodates constructing stones at all, are stones which can be most likely akin to weights of simply several pounds, maybe dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we have now a significant mystery right here? Nicely sure, especially when compared to modern society as noted instantly above. In our modern excessive-tech age, after we do use stone as a building materials, it is in manageable bits and items. We do not build our properties or workplace buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. However when responsibility known as, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to a better elevation when the Aswan High Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historic site, even using modern know-how it was still a serious and big effort.

A Doable Resolution

Maybe we can kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Common One: As we word, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America at the very least); throughout Europe and the Near and Center East, Egypt and different components of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific area, there are historical megalithic constructions using stone blocks in the multi mega-ton vary. How did the ancients carve, transport, elevate and place such huge stone blocks?

Common Two: Also around the world, there’s a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – effectively you identify the tradition and I’ll guarantee they could have giants as a core component of their mythologies. For samplers, here is only a partial listing of giants. Effectively there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Further, you have all method of giant trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), numerous large apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and numerous others, as nicely as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Nicely, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a young child, is feasible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: unattainable’ for grownup humans is likely to be potential for a large(s). A large twice as large as a typical human can have eight occasions the muscle power, since muscles are three-D, doubling in size, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited?

Historical Greeks usually attributed various large stone constructions to the Cyclopes, as an example. Such massive buildings are termed the Cyclopean partitions because the Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes may have built these buildings. Perseus had them accountable for constructing the walls of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them building the partitions of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as evidence that giants must once have walked the Earth. And who built the enormous’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast?

Is this too far out? I’m open to different strategies, however at the very least it would not require high-tech alien help, unless in fact these worldwide mythological giants, just like the Cyclopes, have been aliens!

Appendix: Just a few notable megalithic monuments.

1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at 1000 to 1250 tons apiece.

*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that is all up comes to roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some finished and transported megaliths.


*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as 40 tons.

*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The well-known fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones near 100 tons in weight.

*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has a few of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Region

*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one up to 86 tons.

Historic Egypt

*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at 700 tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the nice) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One among his quite a few dozens of monumental statues commissioned to picture self (at Luxor) – 100 tons price of stone. However that’s featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was solely simply getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, a part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in query, of 1000 tons. Now that’s heavyweight standing.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).

*Nice Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is properly often called overkill on the subject of constructing a tomb. Although the average weight of each stone block is ‘solely’ 2.5 tons, the biggest slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available in at 80 tons.

*Apart from the great Pyramid, other Egyptian pyramids, in truth most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, including monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over 100 tons.

South and Central America

*Those well-known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca metropolis of Machu Picchu, Peru has large stones part and parcel of its development weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a very famous Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs significantly greater than the wall calendar you hang up at dwelling. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a well-known Mayan site, especially because of Erich Von Daniken. The most important stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Additional instructed readings

Childress, David Hatcher; Expertise of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Limitless Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:

De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Thriller; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the end; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Ancient World; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods?; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:

Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer House; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets of Misplaced Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:

Garment-Dyed Chest Pocket Cotton T-Shirt in White 2015

There’s also been dozens of books/movies written/produced particularly about the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments including the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and so forth. Consult your local library.

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