Stoned, For All Eternity

An incredible deal has been written about and made a lot of in various archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors were capable of carve out, transport and erect large multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of properly, monumental size. The implication is that since there isn’t a doubting the existence of those buildings, our ancestors should of in fact possessed a complicated know-how or had help from those that did (i.e. – ‘ancient astronauts’). That runs contrary to the standard model of scholarly archaeology. But the questions remain.

Maybe I’d higher say what I mean by massive multi-ton stone blocks. I imply stones that are no less than several tons in weight, as much as the largest identified carved (however nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That is not the file however for there is, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I imply these are stones that are not trivial to toss around, even as we speak. And whereas not all major continents and international locations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that still leaves plenty of places, and well known locations, that do.

How and why these megaliths have been constructed is not any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, nicely these stone monuments have been obviously crucial to them, and it is necessary to us to figure out how and why they did it. Using giant stone blocks instead of wooden or even small stone blocks or bricks should have served a objective despite the better hardships involved. So, why did our historic ancestors want giant stones; and how did they handle them?

As to the why, presumably, for starters, should you determine to use stone, then it’s important sufficient a cloth serving a purpose(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical functions Stone Island Uk an ‘eternity’. For those who construct one thing to final, at least again then, you utilize stone, the larger the higher. But for what objective did the ancients need such megalithic giants?

Issues Arising: Purpose

These ancient societies or cultures spent an awful lot of assets to construct things that had been relatively peripheral to their primary needs. The Easter Islanders might survive without those Moai statues; historic Egypt would nonetheless have been a ‘superpower’ even without these pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, huge statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – typically called Ramesses the good), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was just a shrine to one of many Greek deities (Athena), and comparable observations could possibly be extended to the hundreds of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments around the world which had been mainly ceremonial in function.

It’s troublesome to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the essential survival needs of the native population – you don’t need to construct something of that magnitude simply to let you know what season it’s! If you need to mark, say the Summer season Solstice, all you need have is a historically and completely nicely marked and simply identified Point A, the place you’ll be able to observe some fixed construction like a rock on the Horizon, that’s Level B, and when the Sun arises straight over Point B, that’s the longest day of the yr. There is not any need to engage in any sort of backbreaking toil or building whatever.

If a society can afford to spend time and effort and cash on secondary tasks, say like in modern society numerous public art works compared to major tasks like roads (transport), schools (schooling) and hospitals (well being care), then you have to conclude that that society was well off provided that they may divert primary resources from main tasks to undertake projects of a secondary nature. Either that, or that which looks to us as comparatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or these Easter Island statues or the Sphinx actually held a major function incomprehensible to us however which rivalled in significance housing and insuring sufficient meals provides and comparable things very important to their day-to-day survival.

Issues Arising: Logistics

There’s also the logistics problem. You need a big workforce that had to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, particularly fed. There wasn’t exactly a close by supermarket the place countless supplies could possibly be bought. Additional, whereas employed on these quarrying, transporting and development projects the employees couldn’t be gainfully employed elsewhere to offer basics like hunting and gathering for meals or even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The workers couldn’t have been used for serving within the army, or another helpful and obligatory job. All of this carving, transporting and construction weren’t just busy work designed to maintain the rabble off the streets and out of trouble, and slave labour wasn’t often in vogue both, contrary to many widespread Hollywood pictures. Of course within the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, however wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Still, the logistics in caving that huge stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been monumental, and the reason(s) for doing so of huge importance to the powers-that-be.

Issues Arising: Ways and Means: The How!

Though our focus and interest is commonly on the development section, as in how was that performed, that is normally only one-third of the arduous yards. Take these 2.3 million blocks that make up the good Pyramid at Giza. Part One: each block had to be carved to dimension. You just did not hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is difficult yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Laborious yakka Part Two was transporting these carved blocks from the various quarries – some native, some not – to action city, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Part One and Two is not often all that mysterious – simply bloody hard backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the development – Phase Three.

To me the foremost thriller shouldn’t be so much how you get something from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Tv sequence “Secrets of Misplaced Empires”), however how you get a massive multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to forty or more feet to act as a lintel, like these at Stonehenge or on all these Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can at all times conceive of building sand or dirt ramps to haul huge lintels upwards into place, therefore eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-reality, but when you think about it, such infrastructure is a far more labour intensive and an all-round major project in its personal proper. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul those multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a higher volume of material to be put into place (and naturally later removed) than that of the volume of material required to build the pyramid in question in the first place. Of course if the mission is that necessary, and if there is just no different method – well there’s all the time those hard options.

For example for instance of simply how bad our knowledge of our remote historical ancestors actually is, this is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Ancient Greek World: Folks and Locations” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably skilled craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their precise building techniques, however.”

“Cranes had been nearly certainly used to assist increase the masonry as much as the temples throughout construction, although no traces of such machinery have been discovered.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and certainly housed and fed the big, extremely skilled workforce required to construct them, so efficiently is unknown.”

So, now let’s take a look at alternate options as offered in some alt-archaeological texts.

One theory sometimes seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these massive blocks did not begin out as huge blocks, just like a brick would not begin out as a brick, but fairly they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, however fashionable petrologists’ may simply detect such. Typically in actual fact the quarry from where the stone originated might be precisely recognized, though that often raises the question then of transport, since the distances twixt quarry site and development site could be lots of of miles. That’s a problem that applies to Stonehenge as well as a number of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you really want to go far-out, star-scout, let’s try antigravity! Anti-gravity is barely accessible in a single kind, darkish power. Darkish power is that mysterious antigravity pressure that’s inflicting the increasing Universe to carry on expanding at ever sooner and quicker rates, in defiance of gravity which should gradual the growth price down. Alas, darkish power, which whereas dominant over the dimensions of all the Universe, is trivial domestically relative to Earth’s intense gravity subject.

Alt-archaeology texts are stuffed with references to sound energy that levitates (negates gravity) and thus large blocks of stone will be floated around and put into place even with just the oomph of an infant, simply by making the suitable sound at the suitable degree.. Sound after all might be focused. Everyone knows and admire the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, properly at the least comparatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the skilled projections of the educated human voice (or equal). Nonetheless, when you crunch the numbers, the power required to negate gravity is approach exterior the realm of which sound energy can muster. Considering the cacophony of sounds the human race produces every day, you’d suppose that all the related elements would come together someplace, sometime and ‘just so’ as to produce levitation in one thing, levitation observed and photographed for the report. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles

In some constructions, it is not just a matter of manipulating large however irregular stone blocks however fitting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes which might be instantly apparent at websites around the globe, like these from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone using only other stone or copper instruments isn’t easy by any stretch of the imagination. It isn’t simple; it’s extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all your blocks aren’t a regular square block size and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say?

Pity that though the ancients left all manner of photos behind of their daily lives and culture, I discover it wonderful that despite all of those multi-1000’s of images from historic Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, etc. not one shows an precise half-completed or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple just like the Parthenon that’s underneath building, or no matter. That’s extremely anomalous IMHO, though there are photos of ancient Egyptians transporting massive stone blocks.

Nevertheless, even some of these ancient cultures were puzzled as to how their even more historic ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions inconceivable’.

There’s something very odd when the natural descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for how their ancestors constructed, transported and erected huge stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their final resting (actually standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, besides Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” workforce achieved the identical with less elegant however with pure grunt power. Strolling stone statues are only a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for consolation. Actually for some purpose Easter Islanders sooner or later downed their stone instruments and abandoned their statue constructions for causes not completely clear apart from priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can still be seen right now, mendacity in place, now long neglected.

Additionally within the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an historic city of about 0.Seventy five square kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s at this time termed Micronesia. The city is comprised of artificial islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus typically referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ however are constructed up of large megalithic stone partitions as much as 25 ft excessive. How so? Well the stones were carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be trustworthy, that makes as much sense as anything.

I famous above that allegedly sound could levitate massive stone blocks. That idea or statement is present in both South America and ancient Egypt – large stones are someway lifted and transported by sound. I nonetheless assume that’s highly suspect and I believe scientists would need an precise fashionable-day demonstration. I know I’d.

Tentative Conclusions

As I famous above, it’s not the caving or the transport that’s the true challenge, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s an actual problem, quite the issue is lifting massive stones straight up that I especially puzzle over.

The puzzlement pertains to our own use of stones in constructing initiatives. We may I assume, if we wished to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we don’t. Your home, if it incorporates constructing stones in any respect, are stones which can be most likely akin to weights of just a number of pounds, maybe dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we have now a major thriller here? Effectively sure, especially when in comparison with trendy society as noted instantly above. In our fashionable excessive-tech age, after we do use stone as a construction material, it is in manageable bits and items. We do not construct our homes or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks because the ancients did. But when duty referred to as, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to a better elevation when the Aswan High Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historical site, even using modern know-how it was nonetheless a serious and big effort.

A Attainable Solution

Maybe we can kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Universal One: As we note, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America at the least); all through Europe and the Close to and Middle East, Egypt and other parts of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific region, there are historic megalithic constructions utilizing stone blocks in the multi mega-ton vary. How did the ancients carve, transport, elevate and position such huge stone blocks?

Common Two: Also world wide, there’s a common theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – effectively you name the tradition and I’ll assure they could have giants as a core aspect in their mythologies. For samplers, this is only a partial checklist of giants. Effectively there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Further, you have got all method of big trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), various big apemen like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and numerous others, as properly as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Nicely, what’s ‘mission: unattainable’ for a younger youngster, is feasible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: unimaginable’ for adult humans may be attainable for an enormous(s). A giant twice as giant as a typical human may have eight times the muscle power, since muscles are 3-D, doubling in size, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = eight.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited?

Historic Greeks often attributed varied massive stone constructions to the Cyclopes, for instance. Such large constructions are termed the Cyclopean partitions for the reason that Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes may have constructed these buildings. Perseus had them answerable for constructing the partitions of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them building the partitions of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as evidence that giants should as soon as have walked the Earth. And who built the giant’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast?

Is this too far out? I am open to different solutions, but at the very least it does not require excessive-tech alien help, until in fact these worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, have been aliens!

Appendix: Just a few notable megalithic monuments.

1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at a thousand to 1250 tons apiece.

*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that’s all up involves roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some finished and transported megaliths.


*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as forty tons.

*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over 40 tons.

*The well-known fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones close to 100 tons in weight.

*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has a few of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Area

*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one up to 86 tons.

Historical Egypt

*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven-hundred tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the nice) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One among his numerous dozens of monumental statues commissioned to picture self (at Luxor) – 100 tons price of stone. But that is featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was solely just getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in question, of a thousand tons. Now that is heavyweight status.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).

*Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is properly often called overkill in terms of constructing a tomb. Though the common weight of each stone block is ‘only’ 2.5 tons, the most important slabs comprising the burial chamber, come in at 80 tons.

*Apart from the great Pyramid, other Egyptian pyramids, actually most, if not all different, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, together with monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, a few of which weigh in at over a hundred tons.

South and Central America

*Those well-known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved right down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca metropolis of Machu Picchu, Peru has large stones half and parcel of its construction weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a very well-known Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs significantly greater than the wall calendar you dangle up at residence. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a well-known Mayan site, especially due to Erich Von Daniken. The biggest stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Additional urged readings

Childress, David Hatcher; Technology of the Gods: The Unimaginable Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Limitless Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:

De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Thriller; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the end; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Misplaced Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

Nationwide Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Historical World; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods?; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:

Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Space; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:

Men's Sweater Thin Section T-shirtThere’s additionally been dozens of books/videos written/produced specifically concerning the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments including the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and so on. Consult your local library.

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