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Stoned, For All Eternity

An excellent deal has been written about and made a lot of in various archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors had been capable of carve out, transport and erect massive multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of well, monumental size. The implication is that since there isn’t a doubting the existence of those structures, our ancestors must of in reality possessed a complicated expertise or had help from those who did (i.e. – ‘ancient astronauts’). That runs contrary to the usual mannequin of scholarly archaeology. But the questions remain.

Maybe I would better say what I mean by massive multi-ton stone blocks. I imply stones which can be not less than a number of tons in weight, up to the largest identified carved (however nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That is not the record however for there may be, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I mean these are stones that aren’t trivial to toss around, even in the present day. And whereas not all main continents and nations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that nonetheless leaves a lot of locations, and well known places, that do.

How and why these megaliths were constructed is no trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, properly these stone monuments were clearly very important to them, and it’s necessary to us to determine how and why they did it. Utilizing large stone blocks instead of wood and even small stone blocks or bricks will need to have served a objective regardless of the greater hardships involved. So, why did our ancient ancestors need large stones; and how did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, for those who decide to make use of stone, then it is important sufficient a fabric serving a purpose(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical functions an ‘eternity’. If you construct one thing to last, not less than again then, you use stone, the larger the better. But for what objective did the ancients need such megalithic giants

Points Arising: Goal
These historical societies or cultures spent an terrible lot of sources to build issues that were comparatively peripheral to their primary wants. The Easter Islanders may survive without these Moai statues; ancient Egypt would still have been a ‘superpower’ even without these pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, large statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – usually called Ramesses the great), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was only a shrine to one of many Greek deities (Athena), and related observations might be extended to the 1000’s of different monumental megalithic temples and monuments around the world which have been mainly ceremonial in function.

It is difficult to determine how Stonehenge contributed to the basic survival needs of the native population – you don’t need to assemble something of that magnitude just to let you know what season it’s! If it’s worthwhile to mark, say the Summer season Solstice, all you want have is a traditionally and permanently effectively marked and simply recognized Level A, where you may observe some mounted construction like a rock on the Horizon, that is Point B, and when the Solar arises directly over Point B, that is the longest day of the yr. There’s no want to engage in any sort of backbreaking toil or building whatever.

If a society can afford to spend effort and time and money on secondary projects, say like in modern society various public artwork works compared to major tasks like roads (transport), colleges (schooling) and hospitals (well being care), then it’s important to conclude that that society was properly off given that they may divert primary resources from major tasks to undertake projects of a secondary nature. Both that, or that which seems to us as relatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx actually held a primary operate incomprehensible to us however which rivalled in importance housing and insuring satisfactory meals supplies and comparable things important to their day-to-day survival.

Issues Arising: Logistics
There’s additionally the logistics problem. You need a large workforce that had to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, particularly fed. There wasn’t precisely a nearby supermarket the place endless supplies may very well be bought. Further, while employed on these quarrying, transporting and development projects the workers could not be gainfully employed elsewhere to supply fundamentals like looking and gathering for food and even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The workers couldn’t have been used for serving in the military, or any other useful and obligatory task. All of this carving, transporting and development weren’t just busy work designed to maintain the rabble off the streets and out of trouble, and slave labour wasn’t usually in vogue either, opposite to many popular Hollywood photographs. In fact within the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, but wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Still, the logistics in caving that massive stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been monumental, and the rationale(s) for doing so of vast importance to the powers-that-be.

Points Arising: Ways and Means: The How!
Though our focus and curiosity is commonly on the construction part, as in how was that finished, that’s normally only one-third of the onerous yards. Take those 2.3 million blocks that make up the good Pyramid at Giza. Part One: each block needed to be carved to dimension. You simply didn’t hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is difficult yakka and helped keep up a state of full employment. Exhausting yakka Section Two was transporting these carved blocks from the assorted quarries – some native, some not – to action city, the Giza Plateau. Extra full employment. The how in Section One and Two isn’t often all that mysterious – simply bloody exhausting backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the development – Part Three.

To me the most important mystery shouldn’t be so much how you get one thing from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Tv collection “Secrets of Lost Empires”), but how you get a large multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to forty or more ft to act as a lintel, like those at Stonehenge or on all those Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can at all times conceive of constructing sand or dirt ramps to haul huge lintels upwards into place, therefore removing the sand or dirt after-the-reality, however when you think about it, such infrastructure is a way more labour intensive and an all-round major mission in its personal right. For instance, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a greater quantity of fabric to be put into place (and naturally later eliminated) than that of the quantity of fabric required to build the pyramid in question in the primary place. In fact if the challenge is that essential, and if there’s just no other manner – nicely there’s at all times those arduous options.

To illustrate for example of simply how unhealthy our information of our remote historical ancestors really is, here is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his textual content “The Historical Greek World: Folks and Locations” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably expert craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their precise building strategies, nonetheless.”

“Cranes were nearly definitely used to assist elevate the masonry up to the temples throughout building, although no traces of such machinery have been discovered.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and indeed housed and fed the big, extremely expert workforce required to build them, so efficiently is unknown.”

So, now let us take a look at options as supplied in some alt-archaeological texts.
One concept generally seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these large blocks did not start out as huge blocks, identical to a brick does not start out as a brick, however somewhat they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, but fashionable petrologists’ may simply detect such. Typically the truth is the quarry from the place the stone originated might be precisely identified, although that always raises the question then of transport, because the distances twixt quarry site and construction site may be tons of of miles. That’s a problem that applies to Stonehenge as well as some of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you actually wish to go far-out, star-scout, let’s attempt antigravity! Anti-gravity is barely available in one kind, darkish power. Darkish power is that mysterious antigravity drive that’s inflicting the expanding Universe to keep on increasing at ever quicker and sooner rates, in defiance of gravity which should sluggish the growth charge down. Alas, dark power, which whereas dominant over the size of your entire Universe, is trivial locally relative to Earth’s intense gravity discipline.

Alt-archaeology texts are stuffed with references to sound power that levitates (negates gravity) and thus massive blocks of stone can be floated round and put into place even with simply the oomph of an infant, simply by making the appropriate sound at the appropriate degree.. Sound after all will be focused. We all know and admire the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, properly no less than relatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the professional projections of the educated human voice (or Stone Island Shirts equivalent). However, in the event you crunch the numbers, the vitality required to negate gravity is method exterior the realm of which sound vitality can muster. Contemplating the cacophony of sounds the human race produces every day, you’d suppose that all the related elements would come collectively someplace, sometime and ‘simply so’ as to provide levitation in something, levitation observed and photographed for the document. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it is not just a matter of manipulating large however irregular stone blocks but fitting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, results which can be instantly apparent at websites around the world, like these from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone using solely other stone or copper instruments shouldn’t be easy by any stretch of the imagination. It is not simple; it’s extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all of your blocks aren’t an ordinary sq. block size and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that although the ancients left all method of pictures behind of their daily lives and culture, I discover it amazing that despite all of these multi-1000’s of pictures from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and so forth. not one reveals an actual half-completed or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple just like the Parthenon that’s below development, or no matter. That’s extremely anomalous IMHO, although there are pictures of ancient Egyptians transporting massive stone blocks.

However, even some of those historical cultures have been puzzled as to how their even more ancient ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions impossible’.

There’s something very odd when the pure descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for a way their ancestors constructed, transported and erected large stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their remaining resting (truly standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” team accomplished the identical with much less elegant but with pure grunt power. Walking stone statues are just a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for comfort. Actually for some motive Easter Islanders sooner or later downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for causes not entirely clear other than priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can still be seen in the present day, mendacity in place, now lengthy uncared for.

Additionally in the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an historic metropolis of about zero.75 square kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s in the present day termed Micronesia. The city is comprised of artificial islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus typically referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ nevertheless are constructed up of large megalithic stone walls up to 25 ft excessive. How so Nicely the stones had been carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be trustworthy, that makes as much sense as anything else.

I famous above that allegedly sound could levitate large stone blocks. That principle or observation is found in both South America and historic Egypt – large stones are in some way lifted and transported by sound. I nonetheless think that is highly suspect and I feel scientists would wish an actual fashionable-day demonstration. I do know I’d.

Tentative Conclusions
As I noted above, it is not the caving or the transport that’s the actual concern, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s a real downside, rather the problem is lifting large stones straight up that I especially puzzle over.

The puzzlement pertains to our own use of stones in building initiatives. We may I suppose, if we wanted to, build our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. However we do not. Your house, if it accommodates constructing stones at all, are stones that are probably akin to weights of simply several pounds, perhaps dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we’ve got a serious mystery here Properly yes, especially when compared to fashionable society as famous instantly above. In our trendy high-tech age, after we do use stone as a construction material, it is in manageable bits and items. We do not build our properties or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. However when obligation referred to as, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to a better elevation when the Aswan High Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historic site, even using trendy expertise it was still a significant and big effort.

A Doable Resolution
Perhaps we will kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Common One: As we notice, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America not less than); throughout Europe and the Near and Middle East, Egypt and other components of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific area, there are historic megalithic constructions using stone blocks in the multi mega-ton range. How did the ancients carve, transport, elevate and place such large stone blocks

Universal Two: Also all over the world, there’s a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – properly you title the culture and I am going to assure they can have giants as a core component of their mythologies. For samplers, this is just a partial record of giants. Well there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Additional, you may have all stone island waxed ice hat manner of big trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), varied big apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and numerous others, as well as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Nicely, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a young youngster, is possible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: unimaginable’ for grownup humans is likely to be potential for a giant(s). A large twice as giant as a typical human can have eight instances the muscle power, since muscles are 3-D, doubling in length, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = eight.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Historical Greeks typically attributed numerous massive stone constructions to the Cyclopes, for example. Such large constructions are termed the Cyclopean walls for the reason that Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes could have constructed these constructions. Perseus had them accountable for constructing the partitions of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them constructing the partitions of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as proof that giants should once have walked the Earth. And who built the enormous’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is this too far out I’m open to different options, but at the least it would not require excessive-tech alien assistance, until in fact those worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, had been aliens!

Appendix: A couple of notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at a thousand to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that’s all up involves roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some finished and transported megaliths.

*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as forty tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The well-known fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones close to a hundred tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has some of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Region
*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one as much as 86 tons.

Historical Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven-hundred tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the good) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One in every of his quite a few dozens of monumental statues commissioned to image self (at Luxor) – one hundred tons value of stone. But that is featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was only simply getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, a part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in query, of one thousand tons. Now that’s heavyweight status.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Nice Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is effectively generally known as overkill on the subject of constructing a tomb. Though the typical weight of every stone block is ‘solely’ 2.5 tons, the largest slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available at 80 tons.

*Other than the nice Pyramid, other Egyptian pyramids, in reality most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, including monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over one hundred tons.

South and Central America
*Those well known but mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved right down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca metropolis of Machu Picchu, Peru has giant stones part and parcel of its development weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a really famous Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs considerably more than the wall calendar you hold up at residence. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a well-known Mayan site, particularly thanks to Erich Von Daniken. The biggest stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Additional urged readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Technology of the Gods: The Unbelievable Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Limitless Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Mystery; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the start and the top; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

Nationwide Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Historical World; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Area; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:
NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets of Misplaced Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
There’s also been dozens of books/videos written/produced particularly in regards to the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, historic Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and so forth. Consult your local library.

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