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Stoned, For All Eternity

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An amazing deal has been written about and made much of in different archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors had been in a position to carve out, transport and erect large multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of effectively, monumental dimension. The implication is that since there isn’t any doubting the existence of these structures, our ancestors should of the truth is possessed a sophisticated know-how or had help from those who did (i.e. – ‘ancient astronauts’). That runs opposite to the standard mannequin of scholarly archaeology. However the questions remain.

Maybe I’d higher say what I mean by huge multi-ton stone blocks. I imply stones which are no less than several tons in weight, up to the biggest recognized carved (however nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That’s not the document however for there may be, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at 16,250 tons. I imply these are stones that aren’t trivial to toss around, even immediately. And whereas not all main continents and nations have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that still leaves plenty of places, and well known places, that do.

How and why these megaliths have been constructed is not any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, well these stone monuments had been clearly crucial to them, and it’s vital to us to determine how and why they did it. Using large stone blocks as a substitute of wooden and even small stone blocks or bricks will need to have served a purpose despite the higher hardships concerned. So, why did our historic ancestors need massive stones; and the way did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, if you happen to resolve to use stone, then it’s essential enough a fabric serving a goal(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical functions an ‘eternity’. Should you construct something to final, a minimum of back then, you employ stone, the bigger the higher. But for what purpose did the ancients need such megalithic giants

Issues Arising: Objective
These historical societies or cultures spent an awful lot of sources to build things that had been comparatively peripheral to their fundamental wants. The Easter Islanders might survive without these Moai statues; ancient Egypt would nonetheless have been a ‘superpower’ even with out those pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, large statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – usually called Ramesses the good), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was just a shrine to one of many Greek deities (Athena), and similar observations could be prolonged to the hundreds of different monumental megalithic temples and monuments all over the world which were mainly ceremonial in function.

It is tough to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the fundamental survival wants of the local population – you don’t need to assemble something of that magnitude just to let you know what season it’s! If it’s essential mark, say the Summer time Solstice, all you need have is a traditionally and permanently properly marked and simply identified Level A, where you’ll be able to observe some fixed construction like a rock on the Horizon, that is Point B, and when the Sun arises straight over Level B, that’s the longest day of the year. There is not any want to engage in any sort of backbreaking toil or building no matter.

If a society can afford to spend time and effort and cash on secondary projects, say like in modern society various public artwork works compared to main projects like roads (transport), schools (education) and hospitals (health care), then you must conclude that that society was well off given that they could divert basic sources from major projects to undertake projects of a secondary nature. Either that, or that which looks to us as comparatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx truly held a major function incomprehensible to us however which rivalled in importance housing and insuring adequate food supplies and similar things vital to their day-to-day survival.

Points Arising: Logistics
There’s also the logistics downside. You need a big workforce that needed to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, especially fed. There wasn’t exactly a close by supermarket where countless provides could be bought. Further, whereas employed on these quarrying, transporting and construction initiatives the employees couldn’t be gainfully employed elsewhere to provide basics like searching and gathering for food or even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The workers could not have been used for serving within the military, or every other useful and necessary process. All of this carving, transporting and construction were not simply busy work designed to maintain the rabble off the streets and out of bother, and slave labour wasn’t often in vogue both, contrary to many standard Hollywood photos. Of course in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, however wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Still, the logistics in caving that massive stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been huge, and the explanation(s) for doing so of vast importance to the powers-that-be.

Points Arising: Ways and Means: The How!
Though our focus and interest is commonly on the construction phase, as in how was that achieved, that’s usually just one-third of the onerous yards. Take those 2.3 million blocks that make up the great Pyramid at Giza. Phase One: each block had to be carved to size. You just didn’t hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is difficult yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Exhausting yakka Section Two was transporting these carved blocks from the various quarries – some native, some not – to motion city, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Section One and Two is not usually all that mysterious – simply bloody laborious backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the construction – Part Three.

To me the major thriller is just not a lot how you get something from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Tv series “Secrets of Misplaced Empires”), however how you get a large multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to forty or more feet to act as a lintel, like these at Stonehenge or on all those Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can always conceive of building sand or dirt ramps to haul massive lintels upwards into place, therefore eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-fact, but if you think about it, such infrastructure is a much more labour intensive and an all-round major mission in its personal proper. For instance, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a larger volume of fabric to be put into place (and naturally later eliminated) than that of the volume of material required to construct the pyramid in query in the first place. Of course if the venture is that essential, and if there may be just no different method – properly there’s at all times these onerous options.

As an example for instance of just how dangerous our data of our distant ancient ancestors really is, this is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Historical Greek World: Individuals and Places” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their mental powers and their remarkably expert craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their precise constructing techniques, however.”

“Cranes had been virtually certainly used to assist increase the masonry as much as the temples during construction, though no traces of such equipment have been found.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and certainly housed and fed the massive, extremely skilled workforce required to construct them, so effectively is unknown.”

So, now let’s look at alternate options as offered in some alt-archaeological texts.
One concept typically seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these large blocks did not begin out as massive blocks, similar to a brick would not begin out as a brick, but slightly they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, but trendy petrologists’ might easily detect such. Often in reality the quarry from where the stone originated could be exactly recognized, though that usually raises the query then of transport, for the reason that distances twixt quarry site and development site might be tons of of miles. That is a problem that applies to Stonehenge as well as a few of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you actually need to go far-out, star-scout, let’s strive antigravity! Anti-gravity is simply accessible in a single form, darkish energy. Darkish vitality is that mysterious antigravity drive that is causing the increasing Universe to carry on increasing at ever sooner and quicker charges, in defiance of gravity which ought to sluggish the expansion price down. Alas, darkish vitality, which whereas dominant over the dimensions of your entire Universe, is trivial domestically relative to Earth’s intense gravity field.

Alt-archaeology texts are stuffed with references to sound vitality that levitates (negates gravity) and thus huge blocks of stone could be floated round and put into place even with simply the oomph of an infant, simply by making the suitable sound at the suitable stage.. Sound of course may be targeted. Everyone knows and admire the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, nicely at least comparatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the skilled projections of the trained human voice (or equivalent). Nevertheless, should you crunch the numbers, the power required to negate gravity is means outside the realm of which sound vitality can muster. Contemplating the cacophony of sounds the human race produces each day, you’d think that all the relevant elements would come collectively someplace, someday and ‘just so’ as to supply levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the report. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it isn’t only a matter of manipulating huge however irregular stone blocks however fitting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes which might be instantly obvious at sites all over the world, like those from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone utilizing solely different stone or copper tools will not be simple by any stretch of the imagination. It isn’t easy; it is extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all your blocks aren’t a typical square block measurement and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that though the ancients left all method of photographs behind of their every day lives and tradition, I find it wonderful that regardless of all of these multi-hundreds of photographs from historic Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and so on. not one exhibits an precise half-finished or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple like the Parthenon that is under construction, or stone island veste homme no matter. If you adored this information and you would certainly such as to obtain more info pertaining to Official kindly go to our webpage. That is highly anomalous IMHO, though there are pictures of historical Egyptians transporting massive stone blocks.

Nonetheless, even a few of those historical cultures had been puzzled as to how their much more ancient ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions unimaginable’.

There’s one thing very odd when the pure descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for a way their ancestors constructed, transported and erected massive stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their final resting (really standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” staff completed the identical with less elegant however with pure grunt energy. Strolling stone statues are only a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for comfort. Truly for some reason Easter Islanders in some unspecified time in the future downed their stone instruments and abandoned their statue constructions for reasons not solely clear aside from priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can nonetheless be seen right this moment, lying in place, now long uncared for.

Additionally within the Pacific region, Nan Modal is an ancient metropolis of about 0.Seventy five sq. kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s right now termed Micronesia. Town is comprised of synthetic islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus typically referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. Those ‘islands’ nonetheless are constructed up of huge megalithic stone walls as much as 25 feet excessive. How so Nicely the stones were carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be sincere, that makes as much sense as the rest.

I famous above that allegedly sound might levitate massive stone blocks. That concept or commentary is present in each South America and historic Egypt – huge stones are someway lifted and transported by sound. I still suppose that’s extremely suspect and I believe scientists would want an actual trendy-day demonstration. I do know I might.

Tentative Conclusions
As I famous above, it’s not the caving or the transport that is the true subject, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s an actual problem, somewhat the issue is lifting large stones straight up that I particularly puzzle over.

The puzzlement relates to our personal use of stones in constructing tasks. We might I assume, if we needed to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. However we do not. Your home, if it accommodates building stones in any respect, are stones which might be probably akin to weights of simply a number of pounds, maybe dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we’ve got a significant thriller right here Effectively yes, especially when compared to trendy society as noted immediately above. In our fashionable excessive-tech age, once we do use stone as a construction material, it is in manageable bits and items. We don’t build our houses or workplace buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. But when responsibility known as, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to the next elevation when the Aswan Excessive Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historical site, even using fashionable expertise it was nonetheless a significant and large effort.

A Doable Solution
Perhaps we are able to kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Universal One: As we word, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America at least); all through Europe and the Close to and Middle East, Egypt and other parts of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific region, there are ancient megalithic constructions utilizing stone blocks within the multi mega-ton range. How did the ancients carve, transport, increase and place such massive stone blocks

Universal Two: Also world wide, there’s a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – effectively you identify the tradition and I will assure they may have giants as a core aspect in their mythologies. For samplers, here is only a partial checklist of giants. Effectively there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Further, you might have all manner of large trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), various giant apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and numerous others, as nicely because the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Properly, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a young child, is possible for an grownup; what’s ‘mission: unattainable’ for grownup people might be possible for a large(s). An enormous twice as massive as a typical human can have eight times the muscle power, since muscles are three-D, doubling in size, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = eight.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Historical Greeks often attributed various huge stone constructions to the Cyclopes, for instance. Such massive constructions are termed the Cyclopean walls for the reason that Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes may have constructed these buildings. Perseus had them accountable for building the walls of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them constructing the walls of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as proof that giants must as soon as have walked the Earth. And who constructed the large’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is this too far out I’m open to different suggestions, however at the very least it would not require excessive-tech alien assistance, until of course those worldwide mythological giants, just like the Cyclopes, have been aliens!

Appendix: A couple of notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at one thousand to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that is all up involves roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some completed and transported megaliths.
Europe

*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as 40 tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The famous fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones near one hundred tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has some of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Region
*Those Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh as much as 70, even one as much as 86 tons.

Historical Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven hundred tons every.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the nice) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One in all his numerous dozens of monumental statues commissioned to picture self (at Luxor) – a hundred tons value of stone. But that is featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was only just getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, a part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in query, of one thousand tons. Now that’s heavyweight status.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Nice Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is effectively often known as overkill in the case of constructing a tomb. Although the average weight of each stone block is ‘only’ 2.5 tons, the biggest slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available at 80 tons.

*Apart from the nice Pyramid, different Egyptian pyramids, in reality most, if not all different, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, together with monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over 100 tons.

South and Central America
*These well known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca metropolis of Machu Picchu, Peru has giant stones part and parcel of its construction weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a very well-known Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs significantly greater than the wall calendar you cling up at residence. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a well-known Mayan site, particularly due to Erich Von Daniken. The largest stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Further suggested readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Know-how of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Ancient Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Thriller; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the tip; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Misplaced Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

Nationwide Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Ancient World; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer House; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:
NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires; stone island veste homme PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
There’s additionally been dozens of books/videos written/produced specifically concerning the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and many others. Consult your local library.

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